Periodontitis is a multifactorial, irreversible and cumulative condition, initiated and propagated by bacteria and host factors. The multifactorial nature of periodontitis is related with the complex interactions between microorganisms in the microbial dental plaque and host response mechanisms, as well as environmental factors. Progression of periodontal disease is very much dependent on host response. Diabetes mellitus (DM), a complex metabolic disorder characterised by prolonged hyperglycaemia, has long been recognised as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. DM is a complex metabolic syndrome that affects both the quality and length of life with major complications. Periodontal disease and diabetes are highly prevalent chronic diseases and inflammation may play a critical role in their relationship. Prospective clinical studies with larger scale and greater statistical power are required to better clarify the mechanisms of possible effects of chronic periodontitis on diabetes.
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