Helicobacter pylori treatment is becoming a challenge in light of increasing antimicrobial resistance and falling eradication rates. This is a cause for concern based on the complications of H. pylori infection, which include gastric and peptic ulcers, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This review discusses recent data assessing the current treatment options for H. pylori infection and the importance of considering the prevalence of antibiotic resistance at a regional level when choosing an appropriate therapy. Alternatives to the standard first-line treatment, such as bismuth and non-bismuth quadruple therapies, are outlined and rescue therapies involving levofloxacin and rifabutin are also reviewed.
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