The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes infection in the liver that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and premature death. The disease is not widely recognised as a serious public health problem, and as a result, inadequate resources are being allocated to hepatitis B prevention and control. Vaccination against HBV has been a great success and has resulted in a reduction in the rate of chronic infection; however, the vaccine is of no help for those already infected. The big challenge is how to deliver effective and affordable care to those who are carriers and who are eligible for treatment, and affordable diagnostics to detect those who are not yet aware of their infection, to prevent the spread to susceptible individuals. This review intends to give the reader a brief overview of the types of control strategies that have been examined in recent cost-effectiveness studies on the control of chronic hepatitis B.
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