The syndrome of hepatic cirrhosis diabetes and skin pigmentation (‘Bronze diabetes’) has been well documented, including its propensity to lead to hepatocellular cancer. However, this picture of advanced disease is much less common nowadays with increased awareness and early diagnosis. However, in addition to this, it has been increasingly recognised that in contrast to other diseases inherited as autosomal recessive traits, subjects carrying the genetic predisposition infrequently develop overt disease. This is due only in part to physiological and pathological blood loss, and further relevant genetic mutations have been anticipated. Indeed, an international consortium has recently identified that the genetic variant ( GNPAT ) has been identified as predisposing to iron overload related disease. Further mutations can be anticipated and will assist in early diagnosis and treatment as well as identifying subjects predisposed to significant iron overload.
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