Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited nephropathy. Initially, it is characterised by the growth of renal cysts. Later, progressive deterioration of renal function determines the prognosis of ADPKD, depending on the main factors of progression (genetic, renal volume, and hypertension). Ultrasonography is the diagnostic technique of choice in the screening for relatives of ADPKD patients. Due to the absence of specific treatment it is necessary, in many cases, to start with renal replacement therapy. ADPKD can also be associated with extrarenal manifestations, mainly polycystic liver disease and cerebral aneurysms, which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality of these patients.
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