Left ventricular (LV) structure and function abnormalities are frequent in patients with chronic uraemia; these disorders increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV) and overall morbidity and mortality in the predialysed population, during dialysis treatment, and in renal transplant recipients. Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is notably increased in patients with CKD. When adjusted for traditional CV risk factors, impaired kidney function increases the risk of CVD 2 to 4-fold. CVD is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in patients with CKD. This review will attempt to summarise current knowledge of the prevalence and pathophysiological mechanisms of LV disease in chronic uraemia, and to discuss useful medical strategies in this population.
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