CHRONIC kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 700 million individuals worldwide. Many patients with CKD require haemodialysis, and more than two-thirds of these patients have CKD-associated pruritus (CKD-aP). CKD-aP can be bothersome for many patients and drastically affect quality of life, from causing sleep issues to mental health problems. Almost 40% of dialysis patients are at least ‘moderately’ bothered and 19% of patients are at least very much bothered by pruritus.
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Findings and Implications of the REVEAL-CKD Study Investigating the Global Prevalence of Undiagnosed Stage G3 Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that can lead to kidney failure and the requirement for renal dialysis or transplantation. Early-stage CKD is often missed because the disorder is initially asymptomatic; hence, many patients with CKD already have symptomatic advanced disease (Stages G4–G5) at the time of diagnosis. This is an important issue because the drugs available for the treatment of CKD are most effective when given during the early stages of the disease (Stages G1–G3).
Update on New Antigens in the Pathogenesis of Membranous Nephropathy
Previously, membranous nephropathies were divided into primary and secondary categories when the exact mechanism or pathogenetic factor were unknown. Approximately 70% accounted for primary membranous nephropathies. The remaining 30% were called secondary because they developed due to well-known diseases such as autoimmune diseases, tumours, infections, or drug assumptions.