Urolithiasis is a worldwide problem in the general population, due to its high prevalence and frequency of recurrence. Since the first successful stone extraction through a nephrostomy in 1976, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has become the preferred procedure especially for treatment of large, complex staghorn calculi. Of the minimally invasive treatment strategies, the PCNL procedure is simply based on the creation of a proper percutaneous renal access, through the most appropriate part of the kidney, dilation of this tract, and fragmentation. Most of these complications are related to tract formation and size. During the development of the PCNL technique, the different terminology emerged, mainly according to the tract size such as standard, micro-PCNL, mini-PCNL, and ultra-mini-PCNL. The aim of this study is an overview of the PCNL, including the history, training, procedure and type of PCNL, and possible complications.
Please view the full content in the pdf above.