During recent decades, the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presented by patients have remained the same, but our understanding and treatment options have improved due to progressions in the field of functional urology. The role of nitric oxide in the ageing of the pelvic floor, bladder, prostate, and urethra is an important mechanism of LUTS. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are increasingly used in the treatment of these patients. Metabolic syndrome has been suggested as another important aetiological factor for both storage and voiding symptoms. Despite dramatic evolution in treatment strategies, non-adherence to pharmacological therapy is very high. The ineffectiveness and side effects are the primary reasons for the patients stopping treatment. The different aspects of combination therapy and the reported outcomes of patients will be discussed in this review.
Please view the full content in the pdf above.