Prof Josef Smolen opened the symposium and briefly described the aims of the meeting. Co-host Prof Constantino Pitzalis first discussed the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying the pro-inflammatory cytokines involved and explaining why specific drugs only work in certain conditions. Prof Simon Jones followed with a discussion on comorbidities and adverse events associated with interleukin (IL)-6 intervention in rheumatic disease. Dr Frank McKenna presented on the psychological impact of RA, including mood changes and development of depressive disorders, and Prof Smolen described the upcoming therapeutic approaches for the condition while also comparing and contrasting existing treatment options. The symposium concluded with a question and answer session.
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