Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), receiving haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation (Rtx). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) places Rtx patients in one of the stages of CKD. Therefore, Rtx patients might be considered a subset of CKD patients. Besides the traditional risk factors of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia, advanced-age novel risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification, and increased chronic low-grade inflammation are highly prevalent and seem to play a more important role for vascular disease in CKD and Rtx patients compared to the general population. The role of Rtx in terms of atherogenesis and chronic ongoing low-grade inflammation is still unclear. To date, in the literature, the data are scant regarding the relationship between atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular events in Rtx patients with well-functioning kidneys. This review will discuss classical and recent epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of atherosclerosis and inflammation in Rtx patients.
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